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2019年世界计量日主题:国际单位制(SI)—根本性飞跃

发布时间:2019-03-18来源:阅读:次


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国际单位制(SI)—根本性飞跃

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为纪念1875年《米制公约》的签署,每年的5月20日被设立为世界计量日。《米制公约》为全球一致的测量系统奠定了基础,支撑了科学发现和创新、工业制造和国际贸易,以及民生改善和全球环境保护。

2019年世界计量日的主题是“国际单位制—根本性飞跃”。之所以选择这个主题,是因为2018年11月16日国际计量大会通过了有关修订国际单位制(SI)的决议——这有可能是SI自建立以来最重大的修订之一。这一修订是在对测量新方法,包括对利用量子现象的测量方法的研究基础上实现的。现在,SI建立在与物理定律直接关联的一系列定义之上,其优势是可以随时迎接测量科学与技术的新发展,满足未来用户的长远需求。

放眼世界,各国国家计量院都在通过研究和验证不同成熟度的新型测量技术,持续推动测量科学进步。各国计量院通过参与由国际计量局(BIPM)组织的比对来确保全球范围测量结果的可靠性。BIPM还为成员国提供了一个共同应对测量新挑战的交流平台。国际法制计量组织(OIML)通过制定国际建议,实现多个领域相关要求的全球一致性和协调性。

“世界计量日”代表全人类肯定和颂扬所有工作在政府间组织和各国计量机构的计量工作者一年以来所做贡献。

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关于“世界计量日”

世界计量日是一年一度的活动。这一天,80多个国家举办庆祝活动,宣传计量对我们日常生活的影响。

之所以选择这个日子,是为了纪念《米制公约》在1875年5月20日签署,这也标志着国际计量合作的正式开始。每年的世界计量日庆祝活动由米制公约组织和国际法制计量组织联合组织举办,各国计量机构参与其中。

国际计量界致力于确保全球范围内准确测量活动的开展,通过每年世界计量日海报及网站的宣传来增强公众对计量的认识。以往世界计量日的主题包括计量与全球能源挑战、计量与安全、计量与创新,以及体育中的计量、环境中的计量、医疗和贸易中的计量等。

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关于米制公约

1875年签署的《米制公约》创立了BIPM,正式开启了国际计量合作。《米制公约》为各个测量领域量值的全球统一奠定了基础。历史上,计量主要关注并支持工业和贸易领域。但是,气候变化、健康、能源等21世纪人类亟需解决的重大挑战领域,也成为了计量关注的焦点。BIPM对选取的部分物理、化学量值开展最高层次的科学研究。BIPM将各国的国家计量院联系起来,是世界计量网络的核心与中枢。各国的国家计量院通过可溯源至SI的溯源链向各认证认可实验室和工业界传递量值,从而保证各国测量量值对SI的溯源性。

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关于国际法制计量组织

1955年,国际法制计量组织作为一个政府间缔约组织成立。国际法制计量局(BIML)是该组织的秘书处和总部。OIML和BIML旨在促进全球法制计量规则的协调一致。自成立以来,OIML的首要目的是建立全球范围内适用的技术框架,以协调各国国家计量部门或相关组织采用的计量法规和计量管理的一致性。

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The International System of Units

Fundamentally better

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May 20 is World Metrology Day, commemorating the anniversary of the signing of the Metre Convention in 1875. This treaty provides the basis for a coherent measurement system worldwide that underpins scientific discovery and innovation, industrial manufacturing and international trade, as well as the improvement of the quality of life and the protection of the global environment.?

The theme for World Metrology Day 2019 is?The International System of Units - Fundamentally better.This theme was chosen because on 16 November 2018, the General Conference on Weights and Measures agreed perhaps one of the most significant revisions to the International System of Units (the SI) since its inception. Research into new measurement methods, including those using quantum phenomena, underpin the change. The SI is now based on a set of definitions each linked to the laws of physics and have the advantage of being able to embrace further improvements in measurement science and technology to meet the needs of future users for many years to come.

Across the world, national metrology institutes continually advance measurement science by developing and validating new measurement techniques at whatever level of sophistication is needed. The national metrology institutes participate in comparisons coordinated by the?Bureau International des Poids et Mesures(BIPM) to ensure the reliability of measurement results worldwide. The BIPM also provides a forum for its Member States to address new measurement challenges. The?International Organization of Legal Metrology?(OIML) develops International Recommendations, the aim of which is to align and harmonize requirements worldwide in many fields.

World Metrology Day recognizes and celebrates the contribution of all the people that work in intergovernmental and national organizations throughout the year on behalf of all.

Notes for Editors:

World Metrology Day is an annual event during which more than 80?countries celebrate the impact of measurement on our daily lives.

This date was chosen in recognition of the signing of the Metre Convention on 20?May 1875, the beginning of formal international collaboration in metrology. Each year World Metrology Day is organized and celebrated jointly by the?International Bureau of Weights and Measures?(BIPM) and the?International Organization of Legal Metrology?(OIML) with the participation of the national organizations responsible for metrology.

The international metrology community which works to ensure that accurate measurements can be made across the world endeavors to raise awareness each World Metrology Day through a poster campaign and?web site. Previous themes have included topics such as measurements for the global energy challenge, for safety, for innovation, and measurements in sport, the environment, medicine and trade.

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About the BIPM

The signing of the Metre Convention in 1875 created the BIPM and for the first time formalized international cooperation in metrology. The Convention established the International Bureau of Weights and Measures and laid the foundations for worldwide uniformity of measurement in all aspects of our endeavors, historically focusing on and assisting industry and trade, but today just as vital as we tackle the grand challenges of the 21st Century such as climate change, health, and energy. The BIPM undertakes scientific work at the highest level on a selected set of physical and chemical quantities. The BIPM is the hub of a worldwide network of national metrology institutes (NMIs) which continue to realize and disseminate the chain of traceability to the SI into national accredited laboratories and industry.

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About the OIML

In 1955 the International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML) was established as an Intergovernmental Treaty Organization in order to promote the global harmonization of legal metrology procedures with the Bureau International de Métrologie Légale (BIML) as the Secretariat and Headquarters of the OIML. Since that time, the OIML has developed a worldwide technical structure?whose primary aim is to harmonize the regulations and metrological controls applied by the national metrological services, or related organizations.